Commercialization of green hydrogen production from kraal manure in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: A review




Renewable energy, PEMFC, green hydrogen, kraal manure, commercialisation


Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement launched in 2011 contracts renewable energy producers to supplement the national electricity grid. No preferred bidders produce energy using hydrogen fuel cells, particularly Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), possibly due to technicalities associated with qualifying hydrogen and fuel cells as renewable. The study explores processes to be followed in South Africa to commercialize green hydrogen production for PEMFC from kraal manure. The paper employed an integrative literature review methodology. There are different stages in product commercialisation, such as developing a product, taking the product to markets, growth, and diffusion. The discussions indicate a huge amount of hydrogen that can be produced from kraal manure that is in abundance in the Eastern Cape. Commercialization of hydrogen production can address global economic goals such as waste management, fighting poverty, reducing unemployment and addressing energy challenges.   


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Author Biographies

Noluntu Dyantyi, Walter Sisulu University

Research Development and Innovation Directorate, Walter Sisulu University, Butterworth Campus

Thobeka Ncanywa, Faculty of Education, Walter Sisulu University, Butterworth Campus

Professor of Economics

Faculty of Education

Walter Sisulu University


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picture by Justin Jali on Unsplash




How to Cite

Dyantyi, N., & Ncanywa, T. (2022). Commercialization of green hydrogen production from kraal manure in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: A review. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 33(4), 1–12.