An empirical analysis of the co-benefits of integrating climate change adaptation and mitigation in the Namibian energy sector

Authors

  • Kassian T.T. Amesho Tshwane School for Business and Society, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9851-0532
  • Emmanuel Innocents Edoun Tshwane School for Business and Society (TSB), Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0640-6880
  • Sioni Iikela Centre for Environmental Studies, The International University of Management, Windhoek, Namibia
  • Timoteus Kadhila Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, School of Public Leadership, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa
  • Lovisa R. Nangombe Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, School of Public Leadership, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17159/2413-3051/2022/v33i1a9261

Keywords:

Climate change; Public-private partnership; Energy policy; Adaptation and mitigation synergies; Namibia.

Abstract

The Namibian energy sector and other energy sectors across the globe are currently in a rapid transformation era that must respond to climate change, which directly affects energy infrastructure’s resilience to the effects of resource scarcities or extreme weather conditions. The energy sector must implement adaptation to guarantee the resilience of vital infrastructure to fulfil its regulatory commitments, which cover the elements of resilience and safety. Through investigating climate change adaptation and mitigation implementation in Namibia, this study validates the existence of these co-benefits where integration is fully observed. It employed a meta-analysis and content analysis to link the observed variables to the most recognised co-benefits. The findings suggest that integration is an efficient way to generate co-benefits that contribute positively to the climate change project. Effective leadership support is one way of realising such integration, either via public-private partnership or energy policy. Namibian energy policy, it is suggested, through voluntary tools and incentives, should create key public-private partnerships and promote management. These recommendations have application beyond the Namibian energy sector, and the lessons learned here could be implemented in scenarios outside of it.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Achieng Ogola, P., Davidsdottir, B. & Fridleifsson, I. 2012. Opportunities for adaptation mitigation synergies in geothermal energy utilization - Initial conceptual frameworks. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 17(5), 507-536. doi: 10.1007/s11027-011-9339-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-011-9339-1

Apostolopoulos, N. & Liargovas, P. 2016. Regional parameters and solar energy enterprises: purposive sampling and group AHP approach. International Journal of Energy Sector Management, 10(1), 19-37. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJESM-11-2014-0009

Atlantic Council. 2021. Africa Center and Global Energy Center. Namibia: A green hydrogen hub for Africa. Available: https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/event/a-green-hydrogen-hub-for-africa/ [Accessed 15th October 2021].

Audinet, P., Amado, J. & Rabb, B. 2014. Climate risk management approaches in the electricity sector: Lessons from early adaptors. In A. Troccoli, L. Dubus and S. E. Haupt (Eds.), Weather Matters for Energy: 17-64. New York, NY: Springer New York. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-9221-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9221-4_2

Barnett-Page, E. & Thomas, J. 2009. Methods for the synthesis of qualitative research: A critical review. NCRM Working Paper. NCRM. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-9-59

Berry, P.M., Brown, S., Chen, M., Kontogianni, A., Rowlands, O., Simpson, G. & Skourtos, M. 2014. Cross-sectoral interactions of adaptation and mitigation measures. Climate Change, 128(33), 381-393. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1214-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1214-0

Bulkeley, H., Castán Broto, V. & Maassen, A. 2014. Low-carbon transitions and the reconfiguration of urban infrastructure. Urban Studies, 51(7), 1471-1486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0042098013500089. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098013500089

Campagnolo, L. & Davide, M. 2019. Can the Paris deal boost SDGs achievement? An assessment of climate mitigation co-benefits or side-effects on poverty and inequality. World Development, 122, 96-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.05.015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.05.015

Castán Broto, V. 2017. Urban governance and the politics of climate change. World Development, 93, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.12.031. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.12.031

Catron, J., Stainback, G.A., Dwivedi, P. & Lhotka, J.M. 2013. Bioenergy development in Kentucky: a SWOT-ANP analysis. Forest Policy and Economics, 28, 38-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2012.12.003 . DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2012.12.003

Chenoweth, J., Anderson, A.R., Kumar, P., Hunt, W.F., Chimbwandira, S.J. & Moore, T.L.C. 2018. The interrelationship of green infrastructure and natural capital. Land Use Policy, 75, 137-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.03.021 . DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.03.021

Ciscar, J.C. & Dowling, P. 2014. Integrated assessment of climate impacts and adaptation in the energy sector. Energy Economics, 46, 531-538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2014.07.003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2014.07.003

Chojnowska, M. 2021. Integrated Resource Planning Training for Decision Makers. Day 6, Session 16 Namibia case study, 17 March 2021. Available: https://www.sacreee.org/sites/default/files/training/files/16.%20Namibia%20case%20study.pdf [Accessed 15th October 2021].

Croci, E., Lucchitta, B., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Martelli, S. & Molteni, T. 2017. Urban CO2 mitigation strategies under the Covenant of Mayors: an assessment of 124 European cities. Journal of Cleaner Production, 169, 161-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.05.165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.05.165

Davis, M. & Clemmer, S. 2014. Power failure: How climate change puts our electricity at risk - and what we can do. Union of Concerned Scientists. Cambridge, USA.

Dorner, D., Baroni, M., Besson, C., Hood, C., Kesicki, F., Olejarnik, P., Trueby, J., van Noort, K., Wanner, B., & Wilkinson, D. 2013. Redrawing the energy-climate map: World Energy Outlook Special Report. International Energy Agency. Available: www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/WEO_Special_Report_2013_Redrawing_the_Energy_ Climate_Map.pdf [Accessed 20th April 2020].

Duguma, L.A., Minang, P.A. & van Noordwijk, M. 2014. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in the land use sector: from complementarity to synergy. Environmental Management, 54 (3), 420-432. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-014-0331-x

Duguma, L.A., Wambugu, S.W., Minang, P.A., & Noordwijk, M.V. 2014. A systematic analysis of enabling conditions for synergy between climate change mitigation and adaptation measures in developing countries. Environmental Science & Policy, 42, 138-148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2014.06.003

EIF [Environmental Investment Fund]. 2016. Environmental Investment Fund of Namibia. EIF. Available from: http://www.eifnamibia.com [Accessed on 02nd Apr 2018].

Elum, Z.A. & Momodu, A.S. 2017. Climate change mitigation and renewable energy for sustainable development in Nigeria: A discourse approach. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 76, 72-80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.03.040

Energy Storage Association. 2016. Benefit categories. Available: http://energystorage.org/energy-storage/energy-storagebenefits/benefit-categories [Accessed on 22nd Apr 2018].

Farooquee, A.A. & Shrimali, G. 2015. Climate policy initiative and Indian School of Business. Reaching India’s renewable energy targets cost-effectively: A foreign exchange hedging facility. Available: http://climatepolicyinitiative.org/wpcontent/uploads/2015/06/Reaching-Indias-Renewable-Energy-Targets-Foreign-Exchange-Hedging-Facility_TechnicalPaper.pdf [Accessed 25th June 2020].

Gregorio, M.D., Nurrochmat, D.R., Paavola, J., Sari, I.M., Fatorelli, L., Pramova, E., Locatelli, B., Brockhaus, M. & Kusumadewi, S.D. 2017. Climate policy integration in the land use sector: Mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development linkages. Environmental Science & Policy, 67, 35-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.11.004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.11.004

GRN [Government of the Republic of Namibia]. 2017a. National Energy Policy. Ministry of Mines and Energy, Windhoek, Namibia. Available: http://www.mme.gov.na/files/publications/fd8_National%20Energy%20Policy%20-%20July%202017.pdf [Accessed 12th August 2020].

GRN [Government of the Republic of Namibia]. 2017b. National Renewable Energy Policy. Ministry of Mines and Energy, Windhoek, Namibia. Available: http://www.mme.gov.na/files/publications/03f_National%20Renewable%20Energy%20Policy%20-%20July%202017.pdf [Accessed 16th June 2020].

GRN [Government of the Republic of Namibia]. 2016. National Integrated Resource Plan (NIRP). Electricity supply industry in Namibia 2016. Ministry of Mines and Energy, Windhoek, Namibia.

Hennessey, R., Pittman, J., Morand, A. & Douglas, A. 2017. Co-benefits of integrating climate change adaptation and mitigation in the Canadian energy sector. Energy Policy, 111, 214-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2017.09.025. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2017.09.025

Hoppe, T. & Van Bueren, E. 2015. Guest editorial: Governing the challenges of climate change and energy transition in cities. Energy Sustainability and Society, 5(1), 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13705-015-0047-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13705-015-0047-7

Hurtado, S.D.G., Olazabal, M., Salvia, M., Pietrapertosa, F., Olazabal, E., Geneletti, D., D’Alonzo, V., Si Leo, S. & Reckien, D. 2015. Understanding how and why cities engage with climate policy. An analysis of local climate action in Spain and Italy. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 8, 23-46. https://doi.org/10.6092/1970-9870/3649.

IEA [International Energy Association]. 2016. 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations.

IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change]. 2012. Glossary of terms. In: Field, C.B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Dokken, D.J., Ebi, K.L., Mastrandrea, M.D., Mach, K.J., Plattner, G.-K., Allen, S.K., Tignor, M. & Midgley, P.M. (Eds.), Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation: A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, 555-564.

IRENA [International Renewable Energy Agency]. 2021. Energy profile Namibia. Available: https://www.irena.org/IRENADocuments/Statistical_Profiles/Africa/Namibia_Africa_RE_SP.pdf [Accessed 20th October 2021].

Iyer, G., Calvin, K., Clarke, L., Edmonds, J., Hultman, N., Hartin, C., ... & Pizer, W. 2018. Implications of sustainable development considerations for comparability across nationally determined contributions. Nature Climate Change, 8, 124-129. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-017-0039-z. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-017-0039-z

Jakob, M. & Steckel, J. K. 2014. Climate change mitigation could harm development in poor countries. WIREs Climate Change, 5,161-168. https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.260. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.260

Kazmierczak, A. 2014. Combining climate change mitigation and adaptation: Green roofs in Basel, Switzerland. In: Prutsch, A., Grothmann, T., McCallum, S., Schauser, I. & Swart, R. 2014. Climate Change Adaptation Manual: Lessons Learned from European and other industrialised countries. Routledge, 233-237.

Klein, R.J.T., Huq, S., Denton, F., Downing, T.E., Richels, R.G., Robinson, J.B. & Toth, F.L. 2007. Inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation. In: Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J., Hanson, C.E. (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 745-777.

Klein, R.J.T., Schipper, E.L.F. & Dessai, S. 2005. Integrating mitigation and adaptation into climate and development policy: three research questions. Environmental Science & Policy, 8, 579-588. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2005.06.010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2005.06.010

Landauer, M., Juhola, S. & Solderhom, M. 2015. Inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation: A systematic literature review. Climate Change, 131(4), 505-517. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-015-1395-1

Locatelli, B., Pavageau, C., Pramova, E. & Di Gregorio, M. 2015. Integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation in agriculture and forestry: Opportunities and trade-offs. WIREs Climate Change, 6, 585-598, doi: 10.1002/wcc.357. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.357

MET [Ministry of Environment and Tourism Namibia]. 2015. Nationally appropriate mitigation action: Rural development in Namibia through electrification with renewable energies. Available at: http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/ librarypage/environment-energy/mdgcarbon/NAMAs/nama-onrural-development-in-namibia-through-electrification-wit.html [Accessed 17th June 2018].

Morand, A., Hennessey, R., Pittman, J. & Douglas, A. 2015. Linking mitigation and adaptation goals in the energy sector: A case study synthesis report. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Division, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

NSA [Namibia Statistics Agency]. 2021. Local electricity generation declined by 24.9% in July. Available: https://nsa.org.na/page/press-releases/ [Accessed 20th October 2021].

NNF [Namibia Nature Foundation]. 2016. An assessment of the economics of land degradation related to bush encroachment in Namibia. Windhoek, Namibia.

NamPower. 2017. Annual Report 2017. Windhoek, Namibia.

National Energy Board. 2016. Canada’s Energy Future 2016: Energy Supply and Demand Projections to 2040. Available: https://www.neb-one.gc.ca/nrg/ntgrtd/ftr/2016/2016nrgftreng.pdf [Accessed 16th June 2017].

NEI [Namibia Energy Institute]. 2015. Monitoring of domestic solar water heating systems in Namibia. Available: https://www.nust.na/?q=centres/namibia-energy-institute [Accessed 16th June 2020].

Ndjavera, M. 2021. Namibia electricity generation shrinks. New Era, Windhoek, Namibia. Available: https://neweralive.na/posts/namibia-electricity-generation-shrinks [Accessed 16th October 2021].

Nexentury. 2021. O&L Nexentury acquires KFW/DEG grant for green hydrogen study. O&L Nexentury. Available: https://olnexentury.com/2021/05/05/ol-nexentury-acquires-kfw-deg-grant-for-greenhydrogen-study/ [Accessed 19th October 2021].

O’Neill, B. C., Kriegler, E., Ebi, K. L., Kemp-Benedict, E., Riahi, K., Rothman, D. S., ... & Solecki, W. 2017. The roads ahead: narratives for shared socioeconomic pathways describing world futures in the 21st century. Global Environmental Change, 42, 169-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.01.004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.01.004

Oteman, M., Wiering, M. & Helderman, J. 2014. The institutional space of community initiatives for renewable energy: a comparative case study of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 4(1), 11. http://www.energsustainsoc.com/content/4/1/11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/2192-0567-4-11

Pasimeni, M.R., Petrosillo, I., Aretano, R., Semeraro, T., De Marco, A., Zaccarelli, N., & Zurlini, G. 2014.Scales, strategies and actions for effective energy planning: A review. Energy Policy, 65,165-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.10.027. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.10.027

Rama, M., Mohammadi S. & Wanlroos, M. 2013. VTT Consulting, Development of Namibian Energy Sector (Research Report VTT-R-07599-13). Available: http://www.vtt.fi/inf/julkaisut/muut/2013/vtt-r-07599-13.pdf [Accessed 28th May 2020].

Rao, S., Klimont, Z., Leitao, J., Riahi, K., van Dingenen, R., Aleluia, Reis L., ... & Fujimori, S. 2016. A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality. Environmental Research Letters, (11)12. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/124013 . DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/124013

REN21. 2015. Renewable energy global status report. Available: http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/REN12- GSR2015_Onlinebook_low1.pdf [Accessed 14th July 2020].

Republic of Namibia. 2021. Namibia’s updated nationally determined contribution. Available:https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/ndcstaging/PublishedDocuments/Namibia%20First/Namibia%27s%20Updated%20NDC_%20FINAL%2025%20July%202021.pdf [Accessed 18th October 2021].

Rutherford, J. & Coutard, O. 2014. Urban energy transitions: places, processes and politics of socio-technical change. Urban Studies, 51(7), 1353-1377. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098013500090. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098013500090

Schaeffer, R., Szklo, A., de Lucena, A., Borba, B., & Boulahyam, M. 2012. Energy sector vulnerability to climate change: A review. Energy, 38(1), 1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.11.056

Shrestha, S. & Dhakal, S. 2019. An assessment of potential synergies and trade-offs between climate mitigation and adaptation policies of Nepal. Journal of Environmental Management, 235, 535-545. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.01.035. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.01.035

Somorin, O.A., Visseren-Hamakers, I.J., Arts, B., Tiani, A.M. & Sonwa, D.J. 2016. Integration through interaction? Synergy between adaptation and mitigation (REDD +) in Cameroon. Environment and Planning C Government and Policy, 34(3), 415-432. doi: 10.1177/0263774X16645341. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0263774X16645341

Steckel, J. C., Brecha, R. J., Jakob, M., Strefler, J. & Luderer, G. 2013. Development without energy? Assessing future scenarios of energy consumption in developing countries, Ecological Economics, 90, 53-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.02.006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.02.006

Stringer, L.C., Dougill, A.J., Dyer, J.C., Vincent, K., Fritzsche, F., Leventon, J., Falcao, M. P., Manyakaidze, P., Syampungani, S., Powell, P., & Kalaba, G. 2014. Advancing climate compatible development: Lessons from Southern Africa. Regional Environmental Change, 14, 713-725. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-013-0533-4

Swart, R. & Raes, F. 2007. Making integration of adaptation and mitigation work: mainstreaming into sustainable development policies? Climate Policy, 7(4), 288-303. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2007.9685657

UNEP [United Nations Environment Program]. 2014. Climate Change Mitigation. United Nations Environment Program. Available: www.unep.org/climatechange/mitigation/ [Accessed 10th August 2020].

UN [United Nations Organisation]. 2016. Sustainable Energy 4 All. Available: http://www.se4all.org/our-vision_our-objectives_universal-energy [Accessed 14th July 2020].

USAID. 2021. Namibia Power Africa Fact Sheet. Available: https://www.usaid.gov/powerafrica/namibia [Accessed 17th October 2021].

Von Oertzen, D. REEE Powering Namibia. 2015. VO Consulting.

Von Stechow, C., McCollum, D., Riahi, K., Minx, J. C., Kriegler, E., van Vuuren, D. P. & Edenhofer, O. 2015. Integrating global climate change mitigation goals with other sustainability objectives: a synthesis. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 40, 363-394. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-021113-095626. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-021113-095626

West, J. J., Smith, S. J., Silva, R. A., Naik, V., Zhang, Y., Adelman, Z., ... & Lamarque, J.F. 2013. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health. Nature Climate Change, 3(10), 885. doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2009

Winkler, H., Baumert, K., Blanchard, O., Bruch, S. & Robinson, J. 2007. What factors influence mitigative capacity? Energy Policy, 35(1) 692-703. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.009

World Energy Council. 2014. Climate change: Implications for the energy sector: Key findings from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report.

Xie, Y., Dai, H., Xu, X., Fujimori, S., Hasegawa, T., Yi, K., ... & Kurata, G. 2018. Co-benefits of climate mitigation on air quality and human health in Asian countries. Environment International, 119, 309-318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.07.008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.07.008

Yohe, G. 2001. Mitigative capacity - the mirror image of adaptive capacity on the emissions side: An editorial. Climatic Change, 49(3), 247-262. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010677916703

Photo by Markus Spiske from Pexels

Downloads

Published

2022-03-17

How to Cite

Amesho, K. T., Edoun, E. I., Iikela, S. ., Kadhila, T., & Nangombe, L. R. . (2022). An empirical analysis of the co-benefits of integrating climate change adaptation and mitigation in the Namibian energy sector. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 33(1), 85–102. https://doi.org/10.17159/2413-3051/2022/v33i1a9261