The electrical energy impact of small-scale onsite generation: A case study of a 75 kWp grid-tied PV system
This study presents an analysis of a 75 kWp grid-tied solar photovoltaic (PV) system with a grid tie limiter to provide energy requirements for an aquaculture centre in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. A data acquisition system, comprising power and energy consumption meters, was deployed to measure solar PV generation, demand for the facility, and energy drawn from the utility grid. Statistical analysis was conducted on the data to determine the impact of the solar PV plant in reducing demand from the utility grid throughout the day, and this was extrapolated into monthly and annual contributions by the PV system to meeting the energy requirements. Findings reveal that the annual energy yield for the system was 1 864.29 kWh/kWp. The solar contribution to the total load requirement on a 24 hour cycle was 28% (139.82 MWh) from July 2018 to June 2019. Summer and winter average contributions by the PV system were 62% and 57% respectively for the period of 05:30–18:30. The mean monthly solar fraction for operating the farm between sunrise and sunset was 0.44. Furthermore, a total of 141.07 tCO2 has been avoided due to the operation of the PV system.
Adaramola, M.S. and Vågnes, E.E., 2015. Preliminary assessment of a small-scale rooftop PV-grid tied in Norwegian climatic conditions. Energy Conversion and Management, 90: 458-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.11.028
Adebiyi, A.A., Lazarus, I.J., Saha, A.K. and Ojo, E.E., 2019. Performance analysis of 8 kW Grid-tied solar photovoltaic power plant in Durban South Africa. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 10(4): 82-95. https://doi.org/10.34218/IJARET.10.4.2019.017
Akinyele, D.O., Rayudu, R.K. and Nair, N.K.C., 2015. Development of photovoltaic power plant for remote residential applications: The socio-technical and economic perspectives. Applied Energy, 155: 131-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.05.091
Ayompe, L.M., Duffy, A., McCormack, S.J. and Conlon, M., 2011. Measured performance of a 1.72 kW rooftop grid connected photovoltaic system in Ireland. Energy Conversion and Management, 52(2): 816-825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.08.007
Banda, M.H., Nyeinga, K. and Okello, D., 2019. Performance evaluation of 830 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic power plant at Kamuzu International Airport-Malawi. Energy for Sustainable Development, 51: 50-55.
Bouacha, S., Malek, A., Benkraouda, O., Arab, A.H., Razagui, A., Boulahchiche, S. and Semaoui, S., 2020. Performance analysis of the first photovoltaic grid-connected system in Algeria. Energy for Sustainable Development, 57: 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2020.04.002
CSIR [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research], 2002. South African Renewable Energy Resource Database – Annual Solar Radiation.
De Lima, L.C., de Araújo Ferreira, L. and de Lima Morais, F.H.B., 2017. Performance analysis of a grid connected pho-tovoltaic system in northeastern Brazil. Energy for Sustainable Development, 37: 79-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2017.01.004
Department of Minerals and Energy, 2018. Annual report. Online at http://www.dmr.gov.za/resources. Accessed 08/10/2020.
DoE [Department of Energy], 2019. Integrated resource plan. http://www.energy.gov.za/files/docs/IRP%202019.pdf.
Drif, M., Pérez, P.J., Aguilera, J., Almonacid, G., Gomez, P., De la Casa, J. and Aguilar, J.D., 2007. Univer Project. A grid connected photovoltaic system of 200kWp at Jaén University. Overview and performance analysis. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 91(8): 670-683. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2006.12.006
Edalati, S., Ameri, M. and Iranmanesh, M., 2015. Comparative performance investigation of mono-and poly-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules for use in grid-connected photovoltaic systems in dry climates. Applied Energy, 160: 255-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.09.064
Eke, R. and Demircan, H., 2013. Performance analysis of a multi crystalline Si photovoltaic module under Mugla cli-matic conditions in Turkey. Energy conversion and Management, 65: 580-586.
Eskom Holdings Limited, Integrated Report 2019. Accessed on 12 August 2020 from http://www.eskom.co.za/IR2019/Pages/default.aspx
Hrayshat, E.S. and Al-Soud, M.S., 2004. Solar energy in Jordan: current state and prospects. Renewable and Sustaina-ble Energy Reviews, 8(2): 193-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2003.10.005
ILB Helios Spain SA. 2020. Technical specifications. Accessed from http://www.solarsolved.co.za/datasheets/solarpanels/ILBHelios/300Watt.pdf on 08/10/2020
International Electrotechnical Commission, 1998. Photovoltaic system performance monitoring-guidelines for meas-urement, data exchange and analysis. IEC 61724
IRENA [International Renewable Energy Agency], 2019. Future of solar photovoltaic: Deployment, investment, tech-nology, grid integration and socio-economic aspects (A Global Energy Transformation paper), International Re-newable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi
KamalAttari, A., & Elyaakoubi, A., 2016. Performance analysis and investigation of a grid-connected photovoltaic installation in Morocco. Energy Reports, 2, 261–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2016.10.004
Kumar, K.A., Sundareswaran, K. and Venkateswaran, P.R., 2014. Performance study on a grid connected 20 kWp solar photovoltaic installation in an industry in Tiruchirappalli (India). Energy for Sustainable Development, 23: 294-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2014.10.002
Kumar, M. and Kumar, A., 2020. Experimental characterization of the performance of different photovoltaic tech-nologies on water bodies. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 28(1): 25-48.
Kymakis, E., Kalykakis, S. and Papazoglou, T.M., 2009. Performance analysis of a grid connected photovoltaic park on the island of Crete. Energy Conversion and Management, 50(3): 433-438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2008.12.009
Mpholo, M., Nchaba, T. and Monese, M., 2015. Yield and performance analysis of the first grid-connected solar farm at Moshoeshoe I International Airport, Lesotho. Renewable Energy, 81: 845-852. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.04.001
Govender, N. 2019. Debating the benefits and challenges of SSEG. Electric Power and Energy, July 2019: 8-9
Okello, D., Van Dyk, E.E. and Vorster, F.J., 2015. Analysis of measured and simulated performance data of a 3.2 kWp grid-connected PV system in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Energy Conversion and Management, 100: 10-15.
Pandarum A, Lekoloane G, Milazi D, 2019. Trends and statistics of solar PV distributed generation in South Africa. Available at https://bit.ly/2RcqoYK
Association for Renewable Energy Practitioners (AREP) , 2019. Report on the estimated growth for the Solar PV sector for 2019. Available at https://arepenergy.co.za/south-africa-solar-pv-update-2019/
Photovoltaic Geographic Information Systems (PVGIS) 2020. Accessed from
Quansah, D.A., Adaramola, M.S., Edwin, I.A. and Anto, E.K., 2016. An assessment of grid-charged inverter-battery systems for domestic applications in Ghana. Journal of Solar Energy,1-11. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5218704
Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), 2019. Renewables in cities: 2019 global status re-port. REN21 Secretariat, Paris
Sahouane, N., Dabou, R., Ziane, A., Neçaibia, A., Bouraiou, A., Rouabhia, A. and Mohammed, B., 2019. Energy and economic efficiency performance assessment of a 28 kWp photovoltaic grid-connected system under desertic weather conditions in Algerian Sahara. Renewable Energy, 143: 1318-1330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.05.086
Sustainable Energy Africa (SEA), 2016. City of Tshwane Sustainable Energy Framework: Suggested strategies and actions to pursue a sustainable energy future. Accessed from http://www.cityenergy.org.za/uploads/resource_420.pdf on 08/10/2020
Sharma, R. and Goel, S., 2017. Performance analysis of a 11.2 kWp roof top grid-connected PV system in Eastern India. Energy Reports, 3: 76-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2017.05.001
Sharma, S., 2017. Performance analysis of grid-connected photovoltaic systems in Western India: A case study. In-ternational Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 1(1)
Singh, V.P., Ravindra, B., Vijay, V. and Bhatt, M.S., 2014. A comparative performance analysis of C-Si and A-Si PV based rooftop grid tied solar photovoltaic systems in Jodhpur. In 2014 International Conference on Renewable En-ergy Research and Application: 250-255. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICRERA.2014.7016565
SMA Solar Technology. 2020. Inverter technical specifications Accessed from https://files.sma.de/downloads/STP15-25TL-30-DS-en-40.pdf on 08/10/2020
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Russel Mhundwa, Michael Simon, Joel Nana Yongoua
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright remains with the author(s).
Publishing rights remain with the author(s)
All articles published in JESA can be re-used under the following CC license: CC BY-SA Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.