Effective tracking of nationally determined contributions: A case study on South Africa


  • K. Ross World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.
  • H. Winkler Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment and African Climate and Development Initiative, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5826-4071




Paris Agreement; NDCs; Effectiveness; Mitigation Goal Tracking


The Paris Agreement’s enhanced transparency framework requires that all Parties track and report progress toward their nationally determined contributions (NDCs). This paper develops a qualitative, multi-criteria framework that can be used to either design effective NDC tracking systems or evaluate the extent to which Parties are prepared for NDC tracking. The paper also applies the framework to a case study on South Africa, with results indicating that the country is progressing well in terms of selecting appropriate indicators, enacting legislation, and enhancing transparency. In areas of collecting data, reporting on socio-economic outcomes, and making changes in national policy, there is room for improvement, and the paper explores options to this end. Since South Africa has a relatively advanced system for tracking mitigation goals, the findings of the paper suggest that other developing country Parties may require additional resources and capacity to track NDCs effectively.


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How to Cite

Ross, K., & Winkler, H. (2021). Effective tracking of nationally determined contributions: A case study on South Africa. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 32(2), 11–25. https://doi.org/10.17159/2413-3051/2021/v32i2a8744